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Agricultural and food scientists need at least a bachelor’s degree from an accredited postsecondary institution, although many earn more advanced degrees. Some animal scientists earn a Doctor of Veterinary Medicine (DVM).Education
Every state has at least one land-grant college that offers agricultural science degrees. Many other colleges and universities also offer agricultural science degrees or related courses. Degrees in related sciences, such as biology, chemistry, and physics, or in a related engineering specialty also may qualify people for many agricultural science jobs.
Undergraduate coursework for food scientists and technologists and for soil and plant scientists typically includes biology, chemistry, botany, and plant conservation. Students preparing to be food scientists take courses such as food chemistry, food analysis, food microbiology, food engineering, and food-processing operations. Students preparing to be soil and plant scientists take courses in plant pathology, soil chemistry, entomology (the study of insects), plant physiology, and biochemistry.
Undergraduate students in the agricultural and food sciences typically gain a strong foundation in their specialty, with an emphasis on teamwork through internships and research opportunities. Students also are encouraged to take humanities courses, which can help them develop good communication skills, and computer courses, which can familiarize them with common programs and databases.
Many people with bachelor’s degrees in agricultural sciences find work in related jobs rather than becoming an agricultural or food scientist. For example, a bachelor’s degree in agricultural science is a useful background for farming, ranching, agricultural inspection, farm credit institutions, or companies that make or sell feed, fertilizer, seed, or farm equipment. Combined with coursework in business, agricultural and food science could be a good background for managerial jobs in farm-related or ranch-related businesses. For more information, see the profile on farmers, ranchers, and other agricultural managers.
Many students with bachelor’s degrees in application-focused food sciences or agricultural sciences earn advanced degrees in applied topics such as nutrition or dietetics. Students who major in a more basic field, such as biology or chemistry, may be better suited for getting their Ph.D. and doing research within the agricultural and food sciences. During graduate school, there is additional emphasis on lab work and original research, in which prospective animal scientists have the opportunity to do experiments and sometimes supervise undergraduates.
Advanced research topics include genetics, animal reproduction, and biotechnology, among others. Advanced coursework also emphasizes statistical analysis and experiment design, which are important as Ph.D. candidates begin their research.
Some agricultural and food scientists receive a Doctor of Veterinary Medicine. Like Ph.D. candidates in animal science, a prospective veterinarian must first have a bachelor’s degree before getting into veterinary school.Important Qualities
Communication skills. Communication skills are critical for agricultural and food scientists. They must be able to explain their studies: what they were trying to learn, the methods they used, what they found, and what they think the implications of their findings are. They must also be able to communicate well when working with others, including technicians and student assistants.
Critical-thinking skills. Agricultural and food scientists must use their expertise to determine the best way to answer a specific research question.
Data-analysis skills. Agricultural and food scientists, like other researchers, collect data using a variety of methods, including quantitative surveys. They must then apply standard data analysis techniques to understand the data and get the answers to the questions they are studying.
Math skills. Agricultural and food scientists, like many other scientists, must have a sound grasp of mathematical concepts.
Observation skills. Agricultural and food scientists conduct experiments that require precise observation of samples and other data. Any mistake could lead to inconclusive or inaccurate results.Licenses, Certifications, and Registrations
Some states require soil scientists to be licensed to practice. Licensing requirements vary by state, but generally include holding a bachelor’s degree with a certain number of credit hours in soil science, working under a licensed scientist for a certain number of years, and passing an examination.
Otherwise, certifications are generally not required for agriculture and food scientists, but they can be useful in advancing one’s career. Agricultural and food scientists can get certifications from organizations such as the American Society of Agronomy, the American Registry of Professional Animal Scientists (ARPAS), the Institute of Food Technologists (IFT), or the Soil Science Society of America (SSSA), and others. These certifications recognize expertise in agricultural and food science, and enhance the status of those who are certified.
Qualification for certification is generally based on education, previous professional experience, and passing a comprehensive exam. Scientists may need to take continuing education courses to keep their certification, and they must follow the organization’s code of ethics.Other Experience
Internships are highly recommended for prospective food scientists and technologists. Many entry-level jobs in this occupation are related to food manufacturing, and firsthand experience can be highly valued in that environment.
Average Length of Employment
Top Careers Before Agronomist
Top Careers After Agronomist
Hispanic or Latino13.5%
Black or African American0.7%
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Iowa State University15.3%
University of Puerto Rico - Mayaguez11.8%
North Dakota State University -8.8%
South Dakota State University7.6%
Texas A&M University5.9%
Kansas State University5.9%
University of Nebraska - Lincoln5.3%
University of Florida4.1%
Washington State University4.1%
Oregon State University4.1%
Southern Illinois University Carbondale3.5%
Ohio State University3.5%
Mississippi State University3.5%
Michigan State University2.9%
Texas Tech University2.4%
Montana State University - Bozeman2.4%
University of Wisconsin - River Falls2.4%
Fort Hays State University2.4%
Northwest Missouri State University1.8%
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|Job Title||Company||Location||Start Date||Salary|
|Pricipal Agronomist||Aquaspy Group Inc.||Indianapolis, IN||Apr 21, 2011||$135,000|
|Agronomist||Akusa, Inc.||Modesto, CA||Jan 06, 2016||$130,200|
|Agronomist Executive||Sun Fresh International, LLC||Visalia, CA||Sep 09, 2014||$125,000 -
|Agronomist Executive||Sun Fresh International LLC||Visalia, CA||Jun 01, 2014||$125,000 -
|Agronomist||Pauma Ranches Inc.||Los Angeles, CA||Nov 30, 2009||$120,000|
|Agronomist Executive||Sun Fresh International, LLC||Visalia, CA||Aug 29, 2015||$120,000 -
|Lead Agronomist||Ceres, Inc.||Lake Charles, LA||Sep 01, 2010||$109,000|
|Chief Agronomist||David Peri Family Farms LLC||Yerington, NV||Nov 15, 2014||$108,000|
|Research Agronomist||Monsanto Company||Saint Louis, MO||Apr 21, 2015||$102,024|
|IFS Research Agronomist||Monsanto Company||Saint Louis, MO||Aug 17, 2014||$100,000|
|Global Agronomist||Reiter Affiliated Companies, LLC||Oxnard, CA||Jun 13, 2016||$94,367|
|Agronomist||Wm. Bolthouse Farms, Inc.||Bakersfield, CA||Sep 10, 2013||$93,000|
|Agronomist||Wm. Bolthouse Farms, Inc.||Bakersfield, CA||Oct 09, 2013||$93,000|
|Technical Agronomist||Monsanto Company||Ames, IA||Apr 01, 2015||$76,154|
|Technical Agronomist||Monsanto Company||Ithaca, NY||Apr 18, 2016||$76,154|
|Extension Agronomist||Driscoll Strawberry Associates, Inc.||Camarillo, CA||Feb 11, 2015||$75,600|
|Extension Agronomist||Driscoll Strawberry Associates, Inc.||Camarillo, CA||Aug 10, 2015||$75,600|
|Extension Agronomist||Driscoll Strawberry Associates, Inc.||Camarillo, CA||Sep 02, 2015||$75,600|
|Agronomist||David Peri Family Farms LLC||Yerington, NV||Aug 20, 2013||$75,000|
|Agronomist||David Peri Family Farms LLC||Yerington, NV||Sep 15, 2014||$75,000|
|Agronomist||Top Soil Produce, LLC||Tampa, FL||Dec 28, 2009||$55,000|
|Agronomist (Agricultural Development)||B&W Quality Growers, Inc.||Fellsmere, FL||Aug 27, 2011||$55,000|
|Agronomist (Agricultural Development)||B&W Quality Growers, Inc.||Fellsmere, FL||May 17, 2011||$55,000|
|Agronomist||James and Son Farms||Hugoton, KS||Aug 27, 2014||$55,000|
|Agronomist||Mid State Supply Co, Inc.||Santa Maria, CA||Apr 14, 2014||$51,000|
|Agronomist||USDA, Agricultural Research Service||Maricopa, AZ||Mar 10, 2013||$50,287|
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