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Working As an Animal Scientist

  • Getting Information
  • Analyzing Data or Information
  • Updating and Using Relevant Knowledge
  • Making Decisions and Solving Problems
  • Interacting With Computers
  • Make Decisions

  • $63,000

    Average Salary

What Does An Animal Scientist Do

Agricultural and food scientists research ways to improve the efficiency and safety of agricultural establishments and products.


Agricultural and food scientists typically do the following:

  • Conduct research and experiments to improve the productivity and sustainability of field crops and farm animals
  • Create new food products and develop new and better ways to process, package, and deliver them
  • Study the composition of soil as it relates to plant growth, and research ways to improve it
  • Communicate research findings to the scientific community, food producers, and the public
  • Travel between facilities to oversee the implementation of new projects

Agricultural and food scientists play an important role in maintaining and expanding the nation’s food supply. Many work in basic or applied research and development. Basic research seeks to understand the biological and chemical processes by which crops and livestock grow. Applied research uses the knowledge gained to discover ways to improve the quality, quantity, and safety of agricultural products.

Many agricultural and food scientists work with little supervision, forming their own hypotheses and developing their research methods. In addition, they often lead teams of technicians or students who help in their research. Agricultural and food scientists who are employed in private industry may need to travel between different sites to perform various duties for their employers.

The following are types of agricultural and food scientists:

Animal scientists typically conduct research on domestic farm animals. With a focus on food production, they explore animal genetics, nutrition, reproduction, diseases, growth, and development. They work to develop efficient ways to produce and process meat, poultry, eggs, and milk. Animal scientists may crossbreed animals to make them more productive or improve other characteristics. They advise farmers on how to upgrade housing for animals, lower animal death rates, increase growth rates, or otherwise increase the quality and efficiency of livestock.

Food scientists and technologists use chemistry, biology, and other sciences to study the basic elements of food. They analyze the nutritional content of food, discover new food sources, and research ways to make processed foods safe and healthy. Food technologists generally work in product development, applying findings from food science research to develop new or better ways of selecting, preserving, processing, packaging, and distributing food. Some food scientists use nanotechnology—problem-solving techniques that work on an atomic scale—to develop sensors that can detect contaminants in food. Other food scientists enforce government regulations, inspecting food-processing areas to ensure that they are sanitary and meet waste management standards.

Soil scientists examine the composition of soil, how it affects plant or crop growth, and how alternative soil treatments affect crop productivity. They develop methods of conserving and managing soil that farmers and forestry companies can use. Because soil science is closely related to environmental science, people trained in soil science also work to ensure environmental quality and effective land use.

Plant scientists work to improve crop yields and advise food and crop developers about techniques that could enhance production. They may develop ways to control pests and weeds.

Agricultural and food scientists in private industry commonly work for food production companies, farms, and processing plants. They typically improve inspection standards or overall food quality. They spend their time in a laboratory, where they do tests and experiments, or in the field, where they take samples or assess overall conditions. Other agricultural and food scientists work for pharmaceutical companies, where they use biotechnology processes to develop drugs or other medical products. Some look for ways to process agricultural products into fuels, such as ethanol produced from corn.

At universities, agricultural and food scientists do research and investigate new methods of improving animal or soil health, nutrition, and other facets of food quality. They also write grants to organizations, such as the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) or the National Institutes of Health (NIH), to get funding for their research. For more information on professors who teach agricultural and food science at universities, see the profile on postsecondary teachers.

In the federal government, agricultural and food scientists conduct research on animal safety and on methods of improving food and crop production. They spend most of their time conducting clinical trials or developing experiments on animal and plant subjects. Agricultural and food scientists eventually present their findings in peer-reviewed journals or other publications.

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How To Become An Animal Scientist

Agricultural and food scientists need at least a bachelor’s degree from an accredited postsecondary institution, although many earn more advanced degrees. Some animal scientists earn a Doctor of Veterinary Medicine (DVM).


Every state has at least one land-grant college that offers agricultural science degrees. Many other colleges and universities also offer agricultural science degrees or related courses. Degrees in related sciences, such as biology, chemistry, and physics, or in a related engineering specialty also may qualify people for many agricultural science jobs.

Undergraduate coursework for food scientists and technologists and for soil and plant scientists typically includes biology, chemistry, botany, and plant conservation. Students preparing to be food scientists take courses such as food chemistry, food analysis, food microbiology, food engineering, and food-processing operations. Students preparing to be soil and plant scientists take courses in plant pathology, soil chemistry, entomology (the study of insects), plant physiology, and biochemistry.

Undergraduate students in the agricultural and food sciences typically gain a strong foundation in their specialty, with an emphasis on teamwork through internships and research opportunities. Students also are encouraged to take humanities courses, which can help them develop good communication skills, and computer courses, which can familiarize them with common programs and databases.

Many people with bachelor’s degrees in agricultural sciences find work in related jobs rather than becoming an agricultural or food scientist. For example, a bachelor’s degree in agricultural science is a useful background for farming, ranching, agricultural inspection, farm credit institutions, or companies that make or sell feed, fertilizer, seed, or farm equipment. Combined with coursework in business, agricultural and food science could be a good background for managerial jobs in farm-related or ranch-related businesses. For more information, see the profile on farmers, ranchers, and other agricultural managers.

Many students with bachelor’s degrees in application-focused food sciences or agricultural sciences earn advanced degrees in applied topics such as nutrition or dietetics. Students who major in a more basic field, such as biology or chemistry, may be better suited for getting their Ph.D. and doing research within the agricultural and food sciences. During graduate school, there is additional emphasis on lab work and original research, in which prospective animal scientists have the opportunity to do experiments and sometimes supervise undergraduates.

Advanced research topics include genetics, animal reproduction, and biotechnology, among others. Advanced coursework also emphasizes statistical analysis and experiment design, which are important as Ph.D. candidates begin their research.

Some agricultural and food scientists receive a Doctor of Veterinary Medicine. Like Ph.D. candidates in animal science, a prospective veterinarian must first have a bachelor’s degree before getting into veterinary school.

Important Qualities

Communication skills. Communication skills are critical for agricultural and food scientists. They must be able to explain their studies: what they were trying to learn, the methods they used, what they found, and what they think the implications of their findings are. They must also be able to communicate well when working with others, including technicians and student assistants.

Critical-thinking skills. Agricultural and food scientists must use their expertise to determine the best way to answer a specific research question.

Data-analysis skills. Agricultural and food scientists, like other researchers, collect data using a variety of methods, including quantitative surveys. They must then apply standard data analysis techniques to understand the data and get the answers to the questions they are studying.

Math skills. Agricultural and food scientists, like many other scientists, must have a sound grasp of mathematical concepts.

Observation skills. Agricultural and food scientists conduct experiments that require precise observation of samples and other data. Any mistake could lead to inconclusive or inaccurate results.

Licenses, Certifications, and Registrations

Some states require soil scientists to be licensed to practice. Licensing requirements vary by state, but generally include holding a bachelor’s degree with a certain number of credit hours in soil science, working under a licensed scientist for a certain number of years, and passing an examination.

Otherwise, certifications are generally not required for agriculture and food scientists, but they can be useful in advancing one’s career. Agricultural and food scientists can get certifications from organizations such as the American Society of Agronomy, the American Registry of Professional Animal Scientists (ARPAS), the Institute of Food Technologists (IFT), or the Soil Science Society of America (SSSA), and others. These certifications recognize expertise in agricultural and food science, and enhance the status of those who are certified.

Qualification for certification is generally based on education, previous professional experience, and passing a comprehensive exam. Scientists may need to take continuing education courses to keep their certification, and they must follow the organization’s code of ethics.

Other Experience

Internships are highly recommended for prospective food scientists and technologists. Many entry-level jobs in this occupation are related to food manufacturing, and firsthand experience can be highly valued in that environment.

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Average Yearly Salary
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Min 10%
Median 50%
Median 50%
Median 50%
Median 50%
Median 50%
Median 50%
Median 50%
Max 90%
Best Paying Company
Irish Dairy Board
Highest Paying City
Lodi, CA
Highest Paying State
New Jersey
Avg Experience Level
3.6 years
How much does an Animal Scientist make at top companies?
The national average salary for an Animal Scientist in the United States is $64,044 per year or $31 per hour. Those in the bottom 10 percent make under $40,000 a year, and the top 10 percent make over $100,000.

Real Animal Scientist Salaries

Job Title Company Location Start Date Salary
Animal Scientist (Genetic Services Manager) PIC USA, Inc. Hendersonville, TN Nov 16, 2016 $117,000 -
Animal Scientist (Wean-To-Finish Manager) PIC USA Inc. Hendersonville, TN Aug 30, 2016 $115,000 -
Animal Scientist (Nutritional Services Specialist) PIC USA, Inc. Hendersonville, TN Sep 14, 2016 $115,000 -
Animal Scientist Riverview, Inc. Texico, NM Jul 01, 2015 $112,000
Animal Scientist Riverview, Inc. Willcox, AZ Jul 16, 2015 $112,000
Animal Scientist (Regional Health MGR) PIC USA, Inc. Hendersonville, TN Sep 05, 2016 $110,000 -
Animal Scientist (Regional Health MGR) PIC USA, Inc. Hendersonville, TN Aug 30, 2016 $110,000 -
Animal Scientist Burns Ranch Inc. Menifee, CA Nov 21, 2016 $100,000
Animal Scientist Burns Ranch, Inc. Menifee, CA Jul 01, 2015 $100,000
Senior Animal Scientist & Breeding Advisor, Small Ruminants MRS. J and Co. Monroe, WI Sep 18, 2015 $93,000
Animal Scientist (Wean-To-Finish Manager) PIC USA, Inc. Hendersonville, TN Nov 23, 2016 $90,000 -
Animal Scientist (Wean-To-Finish Specialist) PIC USA, Inc. Gilbert, IA Jun 15, 2016 $80,000 -
Animal Scientist Standard Dairy Consultants, LLC Chilton, WI Sep 16, 2015 $80,000
Animal Scientist North Dakota State University Carrington, ND Nov 01, 2015 $63,000 -
Animal Scientist North Dakota State University Carrington, ND Dec 01, 2015 $63,000 -
Animal Scientist Riverview, LLP Pennock, MN Aug 15, 2016 $62,000
Animal Scientist Riverview, LLP Morris, MN Aug 27, 2015 $62,000
Animal Scientist Riverview LLP Hancock, MN Oct 17, 2016 $61,214
Animal Scientist Riverview LLP Morris, MN Oct 13, 2016 $61,214
Animal Scientist Riverview LLP Morris, MN Nov 29, 2016 $61,214
Animal Scientist Riverview LLP Morris, MN Nov 28, 2016 $61,214
Animal Scientist Riverview, LLP Morris, MN Aug 27, 2015 $48,500
Animal Scientist Riverview, LLP Hancock, MN Aug 22, 2016 $48,500
Animal Scientist Riverview, Inc. Veblen, SD Aug 25, 2015 $48,334
Animal Scientist Riverview, Inc. Morris, MN Aug 25, 2015 $48,300
Animal Scientist Valley Pork, LLP Hancock, MN Aug 30, 2015 $48,235
Animal Scientist Riverview, Inc. Morris, MN Aug 25, 2015 $48,000
Animal Scientist Sekel Management Group Inc. Scott, OH Sep 04, 2015 $48,000

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Top 10 Best States for Animal Scientists

  1. New Jersey
  2. Massachusetts
  3. Washington
  4. Rhode Island
  5. Connecticut
  6. New Hampshire
  7. Maine
  8. Maryland
  9. Virginia
  10. Delaware
  • (117 jobs)
  • (329 jobs)
  • (159 jobs)
  • (7 jobs)
  • (41 jobs)
  • (11 jobs)
  • (3 jobs)
  • (71 jobs)
  • (103 jobs)
  • (3 jobs)

Animal Scientist Demographics








Hispanic or Latino




Black or African American



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Animal Scientist Education


Baylor University


Missouri State University


University of Nevada - Reno


Western Illinois University


Purdue University


Indiana University East


University of Florida


University of North Carolina at Greensboro


North Carolina Central University


University of New Mexico


Michigan State University


Tuskegee University


California State University - Fresno


Parkland College


Case Western Reserve University


California Polytechnic State University-San Luis Obispo

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Animal Science




Medical Clinical Sciences












General Education, Specific Areas


Ecology, Population Biology, And Epidemiology


Agricultural Production Operations




Physiology And Anatomy




Natural Sciences


Health Care Administration


Food And Nutrition

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