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Clinical psychologists provide mental health care for individuals or families. If you genuinely care about the burden other people carry and find it satisfying to make a difference in people's lives, choosing to be a clinical psychologist might be the right path for you.

As a clinical psychologist, you will be working with more serious cases than general psychologists or therapists. You will help your patients overcome behavioral issues and mental health problems by conducting tests and interviews with them to diagnose disorders and discuss treatment possibilities to carry out together.

You will have to undergo specialized training to take on this role. You will need a doctoral degree to establish your practice, and you will have to obtain a license as well. Completing residency programs under the supervision of licensed clinical psychologists is generally required as well.

What Does a Clinical Psychologist Do

Psychologists study cognitive, emotional, and social processes and behavior by observing, interpreting, and recording how people relate to one another and their environments.

Duties

Psychologists typically do the following:

  • Conduct scientific studies of behavior and brain function
  • Collect information through observations, interviews, surveys, and other methods
  • Identify psychological, emotional, behavioral, or organizational issues and diagnose disorders, using information obtained from their research
  • Research and identify behavioral or emotional patterns
  • Test for patterns that will help them better understand and predict behavior
  • Discuss the treatment of problems with their clients
  • Write articles, research papers, and reports to share findings and educate others

Psychologists seek to understand and explain thoughts, emotions, feelings, and behavior. Psychologists use techniques such as observation, assessment, and experimentation to develop theories about the beliefs and feelings that influence a person.

Psychologists often gather information and evaluate behavior through controlled laboratory experiments, psychoanalysis, or psychotherapy. They also may administer personality, performance, aptitude, or intelligence tests. They look for patterns of behavior or relationships between events, and use this information when testing theories in their research or treating patients.

The following are examples of types of psychologists:

Clinical psychologists assess, diagnose, and treat mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders. Clinical psychologists help people deal with problems ranging from short-term personal issues to severe, chronic conditions.

Clinical psychologists are trained to use a variety of approaches to help individuals. Although strategies generally differ by specialty, clinical psychologists often interview patients, give diagnostic tests, and provide individual, family, or group psychotherapy. They also design behavior modification programs and help patients implement their particular program.

Some clinical psychologists focus on certain populations, such as children or the elderly, or certain specialties, such as the following:

  • Health psychologists study how psychological and behavioral factors interact with health and illness. They educate both patients and medical staff on psychological issues and promote healthy-living strategies. They also investigate and develop programs to address common health-related behaviors, such as smoking, poor diet, and sedentary behavior.
  • Neuropsychologists study the effects of brain injuries, brain disease, developmental disorders, or mental health conditions on behavior and thinking. They test patients affected by known or suspected brain conditions to determine impacts on thinking and to direct patients’ treatment.

Clinical psychologists often consult with other health professionals regarding the best treatment for patients, especially treatment that includes medication. Currently, Illinois, Louisiana, and New Mexico allow clinical psychologists to prescribe medication to patients. Most states, however, do not allow psychologists to prescribe medication for treatment.

Counseling psychologists help patients deal with and understand problems, including issues at home, at the workplace, or in their community. Through counseling, they work with patients to identify their strengths or resources they can use to manage problems. For information on other counseling occupations, see the profiles on mental health counselors and marriage and family therapists, substance abuse and behavioral disorder counselors, and social workers.

Developmental psychologists study the psychological progress and development that take place throughout life. Many developmental psychologists focus on children and adolescents, but they also may study aging and problems facing older adults.

Forensic psychologists use psychological principles in the legal and criminal justice system to help judges, attorneys, and other legal specialists understand the psychological aspects of a particular case. They often testify in court as expert witnesses. They typically specialize in family, civil, or criminal case work.

Industrial-organizational psychologists apply psychology to the workplace by using psychological principles and research methods to solve problems and improve the quality of work life. They study issues such as workplace productivity, management or employee working styles, and employee morale. They also work with management on matters such as policy planning, employee screening or training, and organizational development.

School psychologists apply psychological principles and techniques to education and developmental disorders. They may address student learning and behavioral problems; design and implement performance plans, and evaluate performances; and counsel students and families. They also may consult with other school-based professionals to suggest improvements to teaching, learning, and administrative strategies.

Social psychologists study how people’s mindsets and behavior are shaped by social interactions. They examine both individual and group interactions and may investigate ways to improve interactions.

Some psychologists become postsecondary teachers or high school teachers.

How To Become a Clinical Psychologist

Although psychologists typically need a doctoral degree in psychology, a master’s degree is sufficient for some positions. Psychologists in independent practice also need a license.

Education

Most clinical, counseling, and research psychologists need a doctoral degree. Students can complete a Ph.D. in psychology or a Doctor of Psychology (Psy.D.) degree. A Ph.D. in psychology is a research degree that is obtained after taking a comprehensive exam and writing a dissertation based on original research. Ph.D programs typically include courses on statistics and experimental procedures. The Psy.D. is a clinical degree and is often based on practical work and examinations rather than a dissertation. In clinical, counseling, school, or health service settings, students usually complete a 1-year internship as part of the doctoral program.

School psychologists need an advanced degree and certification or licensure to work. The advanced degree is most commonly the education specialist degree (Ed.S.), which typically requires a minimum of 60 graduate semester credit hours and a 1,200-hour supervised internship. Some school psychologists may have a doctoral degree in school psychology or a master’s degree. School psychologists’ programs include coursework in both education and psychology because their work addresses education and mental health components of students’ development.

Graduates with a master’s degree in psychology can work as industrial-organizational psychologists. When working under the supervision of a doctoral psychologist, master’s graduates can also work as psychological assistants in clinical, counseling, or research settings. Master’s degree programs typically include courses in industrial-organizational psychology, statistics, and research design.

Most master’s degree programs do not require an undergraduate major in psychology, but do require coursework in introductory psychology, experimental psychology, and statistics. Some doctoral degree programs require applicants to have a master’s degree in psychology; others will accept applicants with a bachelor’s degree and a major in psychology. 

Most graduates with a bachelor’s degree in psychology find work in other fields such as business administration, sales, or education.

Licenses, Certifications, and Registrations

In most states, practicing psychology or using the title of “psychologist” requires licensure. In all states and the District of Columbia, psychologists who practice independently must be licensed where they work.

Licensing laws vary by state and type of position. Most clinical and counseling psychologists need a doctorate in psychology, an internship, at least 1 to 2 years of supervised professional experience, and to pass the Examination for Professional Practice in Psychology. Information on specific state requirements can be obtained from the Association of State and Provincial Psychology Boards. In many states, licensed psychologists must complete continuing education courses to keep their licenses.

The American Board of Professional Psychology awards specialty certification in 15 areas of psychology, such as clinical health, couple and family, or rehabilitation. The American Board of Professional Neuropsychology offers certification in neuropsychology. Board certification can demonstrate professional expertise in a specialty area. Certification is not required for most psychologists, but some hospitals and clinics do require certification. In those cases, candidates must have a doctoral degree in psychology, state license or certification, and any additional criteria of the specialty field.

Training

Prospective practicing psychologists must have pre- or post-doctoral supervised experience, including an internship. Internships allow students to gain experience in an applied setting. Candidates must complete an internship before they can qualify for state licensure. The required number of hours of the internship varies by state.

Important Qualities

Analytical skills. Psychologists must be able to examine the information they collect and draw logical conclusions from them.

Communication skills. Psychologists must have strong communication skills because they spend much of their time listening to and speaking with patients. 

Observational skills. Psychologists study attitude and behavior. They must be able to watch people and understand the possible meanings of facial expressions, body positions, actions, and interactions.

Patience. Psychologists must be able to demonstrate patience, because conducting research or treating patients may take a long time.

People skills. Psychologists study and help people. They must be able to work well with clients, patients, and other professionals.

Problem-solving skills. Psychologists need problem-solving skills to design research, evaluate programs, and find treatments or solutions for mental and behavioral problems.

Trustworthiness. Psychologists must keep patients’ problems in confidence, and patients must be able to trust psychologists’ expertise in treating sensitive problems.

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Average Salary
$81,634
Average Salary
Job Growth Rate
14%
Job Growth Rate
Job Openings
26,949
Job Openings

Clinical Psychologist Career Paths

Top Careers Before Clinical Psychologist

Top Careers After Clinical Psychologist

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Average Salary for a Clinical Psychologist

Clinical Psychologists in America make an average salary of $81,634 per year or $39 per hour. The top 10 percent makes over $99,000 per year, while the bottom 10 percent under $67,000 per year.
Average Salary
$81,634

Best Paying Cities

City
ascdesc
Average Salarydesc
Atascadero, CA
Salary Range89k - 115k$101k$101,386
Fargo, ND
Salary Range84k - 106k$95k$94,836
Bethesda, MD
Salary Range68k - 100k$83k$83,328
Washington, DC
Salary Range68k - 99k$82k$82,240
New York, NY
Salary Range64k - 96k$79k$78,551
Boston, MA
Salary Range61k - 94k$77k$76,534
$48k
$115k

Recently Added Salaries

Job TitleCompanyascdescCompanyascdescStart DateascdescSalaryascdesc
Clinical Psychologist
Clinical Psychologist
Adventure ABA
Adventure ABA
01/30/2021
01/30/2021
$33,39201/30/2021
$33,392
Supervisory Clinical Psychologist
Supervisory Clinical Psychologist
Indian Health Service
Indian Health Service
01/28/2021
01/28/2021
$107,80701/28/2021
$107,807
Clinical Psychologist
Clinical Psychologist
American Psychological Association
American Psychological Association
01/21/2021
01/21/2021
$85,00001/21/2021
$85,000
Clinical Psychologist
Clinical Psychologist
State of Nebraska
State of Nebraska
01/15/2021
01/15/2021
$85,00001/15/2021
$85,000
Clinical Psychologist and Postdoctoral Positions In Premier Chicago Group Practice-Up To
Clinical Psychologist and Postdoctoral Positions In Premier Chicago Group Practice-Up To
American Psychological Association
American Psychological Association
01/06/2021
01/06/2021
$40,00001/06/2021
$40,000
See More Recent Salaries

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Clinical Psychologist Resumes

Designing and figuring out what to include on your resume can be tough, not to mention time-consuming. That's why we put together a guide that is designed to help you craft the perfect resume for becoming a Clinical Psychologist. If you're needing extra inspiration, take a look through our selection of templates that are specific to your job.

Learn How To Write a Clinical Psychologist Resume

At Zippia, we went through countless Clinical Psychologist resumes and compiled some information about how best to optimize them. Here are some suggestions based on what we found, divided by the individual sections of the resume itself.

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Clinical Psychologist Demographics

Gender

female

55.5 %

male

35.0 %

unknown

9.5 %

Ethnicity

White

83.1 %

Hispanic or Latino

7.2 %

Black or African American

5.0 %

Foreign Languages Spoken

Spanish

59.5 %

French

9.2 %

Russian

6.5 %
See More Demographics

Clinical Psychologist Education

Degrees

Doctorate

62.4 %

Masters

22.5 %

Bachelors

9.2 %

Top Colleges for Clinical Psychologists

1. Northwestern University

Evanston, IL • Private

In-State Tuition
$54,568
Enrollment
8,451

2. Columbia University in the City of New York

New York, NY • Private

In-State Tuition
$59,430
Enrollment
8,216

3. Johns Hopkins University

Baltimore, MD • Private

In-State Tuition
$53,740
Enrollment
5,567

4. Washington University in St Louis

Saint Louis, MO • Private

In-State Tuition
$53,399
Enrollment
7,356

5. California State University - Long Beach

Long Beach, CA • Public

In-State Tuition
$6,798
Enrollment
31,503

6. University of California - San Diego

La Jolla, CA • Public

In-State Tuition
$14,167
Enrollment
30,279

7. SUNY at Binghamton

Vestal, NY • Public

In-State Tuition
$9,808
Enrollment
13,990

8. Hunter College of the City University of New York

New York, NY • Public

In-State Tuition
$7,182
Enrollment
16,205

9. University of Maryland - College Park

College Park, MD • Public

In-State Tuition
$10,595
Enrollment
30,184

10. Clemson University

Clemson, SC • Public

In-State Tuition
$15,374
Enrollment
19,564
See More Education Info
Job type you want
Full Time
Part Time
Internship
Temporary

Top Skills For a Clinical Psychologist

The skills section on your resume can be almost as important as the experience section, so you want it to be an accurate portrayal of what you can do. Luckily, we've found all of the skills you'll need so even if you don't have these skills yet, you know what you need to work on. Out of all the resumes we looked through, 15.0% of clinical psychologists listed psychological services on their resume, but soft skills such as analytical skills and integrity are important as well.

Best States For a Clinical Psychologist

Some places are better than others when it comes to starting a career as a clinical psychologist. The best states for people in this position are California, Utah, North Dakota, and Nevada. Clinical psychologists make the most in California with an average salary of $100,736. Whereas in Utah and North Dakota, they would average $95,275 and $94,972, respectively. While clinical psychologists would only make an average of $94,290 in Nevada, you would still make more there than in the rest of the country. We determined these as the best states based on job availability and pay. By finding the median salary, cost of living, and using the Bureau of Labor Statistics' Location Quotient, we narrowed down our list of states to these four.

1. California

Total Clinical Psychologist Jobs:
4,307
Highest 10% Earn:
$128,000
Location Quotient:
1.44
Location Quotient is a measure used by the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) to determine how concentrated a certain industry is in a single state compared to the nation as a whole. You can read more about how BLS calculates location quotients here

2. North Dakota

Total Clinical Psychologist Jobs:
129
Highest 10% Earn:
$118,000
Location Quotient:
1.35
Location Quotient is a measure used by the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) to determine how concentrated a certain industry is in a single state compared to the nation as a whole. You can read more about how BLS calculates location quotients here

3. Nevada

Total Clinical Psychologist Jobs:
200
Highest 10% Earn:
$119,000
Location Quotient:
0.93
Location Quotient is a measure used by the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) to determine how concentrated a certain industry is in a single state compared to the nation as a whole. You can read more about how BLS calculates location quotients here
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Top Clinical Psychologist Employers

We've made finding a great employer to work for easy by doing the hard work for you. We looked into employers that employ clinical psychologists and discovered their number of clinical psychologist opportunities and average salary. Through our research, we concluded that Indian Health Service was the best, especially with an average salary of $95,073. United States Department of Defense follows up with an average salary of $72,912, and then comes United States Army with an average of $101,451. In addition, we know most people would rather work from home. So instead of having to change careers, we identified the best employers for remote work as a clinical psychologist. The employers include Veterans Affairs Dept, UnitedHealth Group, and Siertek Ltd.

1. Indian Health Service
4.5
Avg. Salary: 
$95,073
Clinical Psychologists Hired: 
56+
2. United States Department of Defense
4.3
Avg. Salary: 
$72,912
Clinical Psychologists Hired: 
13+
3. United States Army
4.0
Avg. Salary: 
$101,451
Clinical Psychologists Hired: 
13+
4. Kaiser Permanente
4.7
Avg. Salary: 
$77,160
Clinical Psychologists Hired: 
13+
5. United States Navy
3.8
Avg. Salary: 
$97,997
Clinical Psychologists Hired: 
12+
6. American Psychological Association
4.5
Avg. Salary: 
$97,714
Clinical Psychologists Hired: 
11+

Clinical Psychologist Videos

Updated October 2, 2020