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Medical scientists typically have a Ph.D., usually in biology or a related life science. Some medical scientists get a medical degree instead of a Ph.D., but prefer doing research to practicing as a physician.Education
Students planning careers as medical scientists typically pursue a bachelor’s degree in biology, chemistry, or a related field. Undergraduate students benefit from taking a broad range of classes, including life sciences, physical sciences, and math. Students also typically take courses that develop communication and writing skills, because they must learn to write grants effectively and publish research findings.
After students have completed their undergraduate studies, they typically enter Ph.D. programs. Dual-degree programs are available that pair a Ph.D. with a range of specialized medical degrees. A few degree programs that are commonly paired with Ph.D. studies are Medical Doctor (M.D.), Doctor of Dental Surgery (D.D.S.), Doctor of Dental Medicine (D.M.D.), and Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine (D.O.). Whereas Ph.D. studies focus on research methods, such as project design and data interpretation, students in dual-degree programs learn both the clinical skills needed to be a physician and the research skills needed to be a scientist.
Graduate programs emphasize both laboratory work and original research. These programs offer prospective medical scientists the opportunity to develop their experiments and, sometimes, to supervise undergraduates. Ph.D. programs culminate in a thesis that the candidate presents before a committee of professors. Students may specialize in a particular field, such as gerontology, neurology, or cancer.
Those who go to medical school spend most of the first 2 years in labs and classrooms, taking courses such as anatomy, biochemistry, physiology, pharmacology, psychology, microbiology, pathology, medical ethics, and medical law. They also learn how to record medical histories, examine patients, and diagnose illnesses. They may be required to participate in residency programs, meeting the same requirements that physicians and surgeons have to fulfill.
Medical scientists often continue their education with postdoctoral work. Postdoctoral work provides additional and more independent lab experience, including experience in specific processes and techniques such as gene splicing, which is transferable to other research projects.Licenses, Certifications, and Registrations
Medical scientists primarily conduct research and typically do not need licenses or certifications. However, those who administer drugs, gene therapy, or otherwise practice medicine on patients in clinical trials or a private practice need a license to practice as a physician.Important Qualities
Communication skills. Communication is critical, because medical scientists must be able to explain their conclusions. In addition, medical scientists write grant proposals, because grants often are required to fund their research.
Critical-thinking skills. Medical scientists must use their expertise to determine the best method for solving a specific research question.
Data-analysis skills. Medical scientists use statistical techniques, so that they can properly quantify and analyze health research questions.
Decisionmaking skills. Medical scientists must determine what research questions to ask, how best to investigate the questions, and what data will best answer the questions.
Observation skills. Medical scientists conduct experiments that require precise observation of samples and other health data. Any mistake could lead to inconclusive or misleading results.
|Job Title||Company||Location||Start Date||Salary|
|Director, Senior Protein & Cell Sciences||EMD Serono Research Institute, Inc.||Billerica, MA||Dec 27, 2010||$210,673|
|Director, Structural Biology||C4 Therapeutics, Inc.||Cambridge, MA||Jul 25, 2016||$165,000|
|Director, Single Cell Genomics Core||The Jackson Laboratory||Farmington, CT||Nov 03, 2014||$140,000|
|Director, Single Cell Genomics Core||The Jackson Laboratory||Farmington, CT||Oct 25, 2014||$140,000|
|Director of Biology||Constellation Pharmaceuticals, Inc.||Cambridge, MA||Mar 05, 2011||$136,000 -
|Director, HIV Biology||Glaxosmithkline LLC||Parkton, NC||Sep 10, 2015||$126,000 -
|Director, Stem Cell Biology||International Stem Cell Corporation||Carlsbad, CA||Sep 22, 2012||$125,000|
|Director of Biology||Miragen Therapeutics, Inc.||Boulder, CO||Oct 01, 2009||$123,469 -
|Associate Director of Cell Biology and Translation||DYAX Corp.||Cambridge, MA||Sep 18, 2010||$96,678 -
|Director, Skin Biology||Stiefel Laboratories, Inc.||Parkton, NC||Oct 01, 2015||$96,200 -
|Director, Skin Biology||Stiefel Laboratories, Inc.||Parkton, NC||Jan 27, 2014||$93,200 -
|Scientist, IPS Cell Biology||Ipierian, Inc.||South San Francisco, CA||Aug 30, 2009||$83,000|
|Scientist, IPS Cell Biology||Ipierian, Inc.||South San Francisco, CA||Sep 21, 2009||$83,000|
|Director of Cell Biology and Research Partnerships||Stem Cell Theranostics, Inc.||Menlo Park, CA||Mar 24, 2014||$82,000|
|Director of Cell Biology and Research Partnerships||Stem Cell Theranostics, Inc.||Menlo Park, CA||Sep 03, 2014||$82,000|
|Director of Cell Formation||Enerdel, Inc.||Indianapolis, IN||Sep 25, 2010||$80,000 -
|Director of Cell Formation||Enerdel, Inc.||Greenfield, IN||Sep 25, 2010||$80,000 -
|Scientist-Cell Biology||Murigenics, Inc.||Vallejo, CA||Aug 15, 2016||$72,800|
|Instructor of Cell Biology||Weill Cornell Medical College||New York, NY||Jul 01, 2013||$70,000|
|Scientist III, Cell Biology||Life Technologies Corporation||Carlsbad, CA||Aug 31, 2015||$68,700 -
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