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Chemists and materials scientists study substances at the atomic and molecular levels and the ways in which the substances interact with one another. They use their knowledge to develop new and improved products and to test the quality of manufactured goods.Duties
Chemists and materials scientists typically do the following:
Some chemists and materials scientists work in basic research. Others work in applied research. In basic research, chemists investigate the properties, composition, and structure of matter. They also experiment with combinations of elements and the ways in which they interact. In applied research, chemists investigate possible new products and ways to improve existing ones. Chemistry research has led to the discovery and development of new and improved drugs, plastics, and cleaners, as well as thousands of other products.
Materials scientists study the structures and chemical properties of various materials in order to develop new products or enhance existing ones. They determine ways to strengthen or combine materials, or develop new materials, for use in a variety of products. Applications of materials science include inventing or improving ceramics, metallic alloys, and superconducting materials.
Chemists and materials scientists use computers and a wide variety of sophisticated laboratory instrumentation for modeling, simulation, and experimental analysis. For example, some chemists use three-dimensional computer modeling software to study the structure and properties of complex molecules.
Most chemists and materials scientists work as part of a team. The number of scientific research projects that involve multiple disciplines is increasing, and it is common for chemists and materials scientists to work on teams with other scientists, such as biologists, physicists, computer specialists, and engineers. For example, in pharmaceutical research, chemists may work with biologists to develop new drugs and with engineers to design ways to mass-produce the new drugs. For more information, see the profiles on biochemists and biophysicists, microbiologists, zoologists and wildlife biologists, physicists and astronomers, computer and information technology occupations, and engineering occupations.
Chemists often specialize in a particular branch of the field. The following are examples of types of chemists:
Analytical chemists determine the structure, composition, and nature of substances by examining and identifying their various elements or compounds. They also study the relationships and interactions among the parts of compounds. Some analytical chemists specialize in developing new methods of analysis and new techniques for carrying out their work. Their research has a wide range of applications, including food safety, pharmaceuticals, and pollution control.
Inorganic chemists study the structure, properties, and reactions of molecules that do not contain carbon, such as metals. They work to understand the behavior and the characteristics of inorganic substances. Inorganic chemists figure out how these materials, such as ceramics and superconductors, can be modified, separated, or used in products.
Medicinal chemists research and develop chemical compounds that can be used as pharmaceutical drugs. They work on teams with other scientists and engineers to create and test new drug products. They also help develop new and improved manufacturing processes to produce new drugs on a large scale effectively.
Organic chemists study the structure, properties, and reactions of molecules that contain carbon. They also design and make new organic substances that have unique properties and applications. These compounds in turn, have been used to develop many commercial products, such as pharmaceutical drugs and plastics.
Physical chemists study the fundamental characteristics of how matter behaves on a molecular and atomic level and how chemical reactions occur. On the basis of their analyses, physical chemists may develop new theories, such as how complex structures are formed. Physical chemists often work closely with materials scientists, to research and develop potential uses for new materials.
Theoretical chemists investigate theoretical methods that can predict the outcomes of chemical experiments. Theoretical chemistry encompasses a variety of specializations itself, although most specializations incorporate advanced computation and programming. Some examples of theoretical chemists are computational chemists, mathematical chemists, and chemical informaticians.
Materials scientists tend to specialize by the material they work with most often. A few examples of materials in which these scientists specialize are ceramics, glasses, metals, nanomaterials (extremely small substances), polymers, and semiconductors.
A growing numbers of chemists work in interdisciplinary fields, such as biochemistry and geochemistry. For more information, see the profiles on biochemists and biophysicists and geoscientists.
Many people with a chemistry background become professors or teachers. For more information, see the profiles on high school teachers and postsecondary teachers.
Chemists and materials scientists need at least a bachelor’s degree in chemistry or a related field. However, a master’s degree or Ph.D. is required for many research jobs.Education
A bachelor’s degree in chemistry or in a related field is needed for entry-level chemist or materials scientist jobs. Although some materials scientists hold a degree in materials science, most have a degree in chemistry, physics, or engineering. Many jobs require a master’s degree or a Ph.D. and also may require significant levels of work experience. Chemists and materials scientists with a Ph.D. and postdoctoral experience typically lead basic- or applied-research teams.
Many colleges and universities offer degree programs in chemistry that are approved by the American Chemical Society. There are few programs specifically in materials science, but the number of programs is gradually increasing. Some colleges offer materials science as a specialization within their chemistry programs, and some engineering schools offer degrees in the joint field of materials science and engineering. High school students can prepare for college coursework by taking chemistry, math, and computer science classes.
Undergraduate chemistry majors typically are required to take courses in analytical, organic, inorganic, and physical chemistry. In addition to chemistry coursework, they take classes in mathematics, biological sciences, and physics. Computer science courses are essential, because chemists and materials scientists need computer skills to perform modeling and simulation tasks, manage and manipulate databases, and operate computerized laboratory equipment.
Laboratory experience, either at a college or university, or through internships, fellowships, or work–study programs in industry, is also useful.
Graduate students studying chemistry commonly specialize in a subfield, such as analytical chemistry or inorganic chemistry. For example, those interested in doing research in the pharmaceutical industry usually develop a strong background in medicinal or organic chemistry.Important Qualities
Analytical skills. Chemists and materials scientists carry out scientific experiments and studies. They must be precise and accurate in their analyses, because errors could invalidate their research.
Communication skills. Chemists and materials scientists need to communicate with team members and other scientists. They must be able to read and write technical reports and give presentations.
Critical-thinking skills. Chemists and materials scientists carefully evaluate their own work and the work of others. They must determine if results and conclusions are based on sound science.
Interpersonal skills. Chemists and materials scientists typically work on interdisciplinary research teams and need to work well with others toward a common goal. Many serve as team leaders and must be able to motivate and direct other team members.
Math skills. Chemists and materials scientists regularly use complex mathematical equations and formulas, and they need a broad understanding of mathematics, including calculus, algebra, and statistics.
Organizational skills. Chemists and materials scientists need to document processes carefully in order to conform to regulations and industry procedures. Disorganization in the workplace can lead to legal problems, damage to equipment, and chemical spills.
Perseverance. Scientific research involves substantial trial and error, and chemists and materials scientists must not become discouraged in their work.
Problem-solving skills. Chemists and materials scientists research and develop new and improved chemical products, processes, and materials. This work requires a great deal of trial and error on the part of chemists and materials scientists before a unique solution is found.
Time-management skills. Chemists and materials scientists usually need to meet deadlines when conducting research. They must be able to manage time and prioritize tasks efficiently while maintaining their quality of work.Advancement
Chemists typically receive greater responsibility and independence in their work as they gain experience. Greater responsibility also is gained through further education. Ph.D. chemists usually lead research teams and have control over the direction and content of projects, but even Ph.D. holders have room to advance as they gain experience. As chemists become more proficient in managing research projects, they may take on larger, more complicated, and more expensive projects.
Some chemists and materials scientists become natural sciences managers.
|Job Title||Company||Location||Start Date||Salary|
|Materials Scientist Additive Manufacturing||Ut-Battelle, LLC (Oak Ridge National Laboratory)||Oak Ridge, TN||Apr 13, 2015||$120,000|
|Materials Scientist||Nanolab Technologies, Inc.||Milpitas, CA||Jul 11, 2016||$115,000|
|Assistant Materials Scientist||Brookhaven National Laboratory||NY||Jan 05, 2016||$108,357|
|Assistant Materials Scientist||Brookhaven National Laboratory||NY||Jan 05, 2016||$108,000|
|Battery Materials Scientist||Ford Motor Company||Dearborn, MI||Dec 09, 2016||$106,850 -
|Materials Scientist/Engineer||Analytical Mechanics Associates, Inc.||Mountain View, CA||Dec 21, 2015||$105,581|
|Silicon Materials Scientist||Cree, Inc.||Durham, NC||Jun 12, 2016||$105,290|
|Materials Scientist||Nanolab Technologies, Inc.||Milpitas, CA||Dec 16, 2015||$105,000|
|Associate Materials Scientist||Brookhaven National Laboratory||NY||Oct 01, 2015||$104,350|
|Materials Scientist||General Electric Company-GE Global Research Center||Niskayuna, NY||Sep 18, 2015||$103,400|
|Associate Materials Scientist||Brookhaven National Laboratory||NY||Oct 01, 2015||$102,850|
|Material Scientist||Advenira Enterprises, Inc.||Sunnyvale, CA||May 11, 2015||$100,506|
|Materials Scientist||Frequency Management International, Inc.||Huntington Beach, CA||May 01, 2015||$100,051|
|Assistant Materials Scientist||Uchicago Argonne, LLC||Lemont, IL||Jan 18, 2016||$90,000|
|Materials Scientist||Nanolab Technologies, Inc.||Milpitas, CA||Sep 15, 2015||$90,000|
|Material Scientist||Freudenberg Filtration Technologies, L.P.||Hopkinsville, KY||Feb 05, 2016||$88,000|
|Materials Scientist||Nanolab Technologies, Inc.||Milpitas, CA||Sep 09, 2016||$87,963|
|Materials Scientist (Senior Scientist)||Evans Analytical Group||Sunnyvale, CA||Sep 21, 2016||$87,963 -
|Material Scientist||International Thermodyne, Inc.||Charlotte, NC||Sep 10, 2015||$85,634|
|Materials Scientist 2||Battelle||Richland, WA||Oct 01, 2015||$85,000|
|Materials Scientist||Walker Design Inc.||CA||Oct 20, 2015||$70,645|
|Materials Scientist||Sinmat Inc.||Gainesville, FL||Aug 29, 2016||$69,992|
|Polymer Material Scientist||Molecular Rebar Design, LLC||Austin, TX||Feb 16, 2015||$69,846 -
|Materials Scientists||Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/DHHS||Cincinnati, OH||Oct 05, 2015||$68,923|
|Asst Materials Scientist||Uchicago Argonne, LLC||Lemont, IL||Nov 14, 2016||$68,715 -
|Asst Materials Scientist||Uchicago Argonne, LLC||Lemont, IL||Jul 12, 2016||$68,715 -
|Materials Scientist||EAG, Inc.||Sunnyvale, CA||Sep 13, 2015||$68,619 -
|Materials Scientist||Verdeco Recycling, Inc.||South Gate, CA||Apr 09, 2015||$67,808|
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