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Although psychologists typically need a doctoral degree in psychology, a master’s degree is sufficient for some positions. Psychologists in independent practice also need a license.Education
Most clinical, counseling, and research psychologists need a doctoral degree. Students can complete a Ph.D. in psychology or a Doctor of Psychology (Psy.D.) degree. A Ph.D. in psychology is a research degree that is obtained after taking a comprehensive exam and writing a dissertation based on original research. Ph.D programs typically include courses on statistics and experimental procedures. The Psy.D. is a clinical degree and is often based on practical work and examinations rather than a dissertation. In clinical, counseling, school, or health service settings, students usually complete a 1-year internship as part of the doctoral program.
School psychologists need an advanced degree and certification or licensure to work. The advanced degree is most commonly the education specialist degree (Ed.S.), which typically requires a minimum of 60 graduate semester credit hours and a 1,200-hour supervised internship. Some school psychologists may have a doctoral degree in school psychology or a master’s degree. School psychologists’ programs include coursework in both education and psychology because their work addresses education and mental health components of students’ development.
Graduates with a master’s degree in psychology can work as industrial-organizational psychologists. When working under the supervision of a doctoral psychologist, master’s graduates can also work as psychological assistants in clinical, counseling, or research settings. Master’s degree programs typically include courses in industrial-organizational psychology, statistics, and research design.
Most master’s degree programs do not require an undergraduate major in psychology, but do require coursework in introductory psychology, experimental psychology, and statistics. Some doctoral degree programs require applicants to have a master’s degree in psychology; others will accept applicants with a bachelor’s degree and a major in psychology.
Most graduates with a bachelor’s degree in psychology find work in other fields such as business administration, sales, or education.Licenses, Certifications, and Registrations
In most states, practicing psychology or using the title of “psychologist” requires licensure. In all states and the District of Columbia, psychologists who practice independently must be licensed where they work.
Licensing laws vary by state and type of position. Most clinical and counseling psychologists need a doctorate in psychology, an internship, at least 1 to 2 years of supervised professional experience, and to pass the Examination for Professional Practice in Psychology. Information on specific state requirements can be obtained from the Association of State and Provincial Psychology Boards. In many states, licensed psychologists must complete continuing education courses to keep their licenses.
The American Board of Professional Psychology awards specialty certification in 15 areas of psychology, such as clinical health, couple and family, or rehabilitation. The American Board of Professional Neuropsychology offers certification in neuropsychology. Board certification can demonstrate professional expertise in a specialty area. Certification is not required for most psychologists, but some hospitals and clinics do require certification. In those cases, candidates must have a doctoral degree in psychology, state license or certification, and any additional criteria of the specialty field.Training
Prospective practicing psychologists must have pre- or post-doctoral supervised experience, including an internship. Internships allow students to gain experience in an applied setting. Candidates must complete an internship before they can qualify for state licensure. The required number of hours of the internship varies by state.Important Qualities
Analytical skills. Psychologists must be able to examine the information they collect and draw logical conclusions from them.
Communication skills. Psychologists must have strong communication skills because they spend much of their time listening to and speaking with patients.
Observational skills. Psychologists study attitude and behavior. They must be able to watch people and understand the possible meanings of facial expressions, body positions, actions, and interactions.
Patience. Psychologists must be able to demonstrate patience, because conducting research or treating patients may take a long time.
People skills. Psychologists study and help people. They must be able to work well with clients, patients, and other professionals.
Problem-solving skills. Psychologists need problem-solving skills to design research, evaluate programs, and find treatments or solutions for mental and behavioral problems.
Trustworthiness. Psychologists must keep patients’ problems in confidence, and patients must be able to trust psychologists’ expertise in treating sensitive problems.
Average Length of Employment
Top Careers Before Neuropsychologist
Top Careers After Neuropsychologist
Hispanic or Latino12.0%
Black or African American0.6%
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Fielding Graduate University10.3%
Nova Southeastern University10.3%
University of North Texas6.9%
Teachers College of Columbia University6.9%
Ohio State University6.9%
University of the Rockies6.9%
Carlos Albizu University6.9%
Antioch University-New England3.4%
University of California - Los Angeles3.4%
University of West Florida3.4%
Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey3.4%
Francis Marion University3.4%
Widener University-Delaware Law School3.4%
University of Texas at Austin3.4%
Ohio University -3.4%
Wayne State University3.4%
Alliant International University3.4%
Palo Alto University3.4%
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|Job Title||Company||Location||Start Date||Salary|
|Neuropsychologist||Peacehealth||Eugene, OR||May 20, 2016||$109,776|
|Neuropsychologist||Cleveland Clinic||Las Vegas, NV||Sep 01, 2015||$107,500|
|Neuropsychologist||Cleveland Clinic Foundation||Cleveland, OH||Aug 27, 2016||$105,000|
|Staff Neuropsychologist||Children's Hospital Corporation||Boston, MA||Oct 14, 2016||$100,815|
|Faculty Neuropsychologist||Dignity Health||Phoenix, AZ||Sep 28, 2016||$100,668|
|Neuropsychologist||Nemours Foundation-Nemours Children's Hospital||Orlando, FL||Jun 04, 2012||$92,000 -
|Staff Neuropsychologist||Children's Hospital Corporation||Boston, MA||Oct 14, 2013||$90,000|
|Neuropsychologist||Peacehealth||Eugene, OR||Feb 11, 2011||$88,698|
|Neuropsychologist||Columbus Regional Hospital||Columbus, IN||Sep 01, 2012||$85,010|
|Neuropsychologist||Columbus Regional Hospital||Columbus, IN||Aug 31, 2015||$85,000 -
|Staff Neuropsychologist||Hartford Hospital||Hartford, CT||Sep 01, 2015||$85,000|
|Neuropsychologist||Cleveland Clinic Foundation||Cleveland, OH||May 01, 2010||$84,900|
|Faculty Neuropsychologist||Dignity Health||Phoenix, AZ||Jul 15, 2014||$84,323 -
|Faculty Neuropsychologist||Catholic Healthcare West||Phoenix, AZ||Jul 15, 2011||$83,720 -
|Neuropsychologist||Orlando Health||Orlando, FL||Dec 01, 2011||$83,200|
|Research Neuropsychologist||Butler Hospital||Providence, RI||Jul 20, 2015||$82,000|
|Neuropsychologist||Tallahassee Memorial Healthcare, Inc.||Tallahassee, FL||Sep 09, 2014||$78,909|
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