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Wholesale and manufacturing sales representatives sell goods for wholesalers or manufacturers to businesses, government agencies, and other organizations. They contact customers, explain product features, answer any questions that their customers may have, and negotiate prices.Duties
Wholesale and manufacturing sales representatives typically do the following:
Wholesale and manufacturing sales representatives—sometimes called manufacturers’ representatives or manufacturers’ agents—generally work for manufacturers or wholesalers. Some work for a single organization, while others represent several companies and sell a range of products.
Rather than selling goods directly to consumers, wholesale and manufacturing sales representatives deal with businesses, government agencies, and other organizations. For more information about people who sell directly to consumers, see the profile on retail sales workers.
Some wholesale and manufacturing sales representatives deal with nonscientific products such as food, office supplies, and clothing. Other representatives specialize in technical and scientific products, ranging from agricultural and mechanical equipment to computer and pharmaceutical goods. For more information about people who specialize in sales of technical products and services, see the profile on sales engineers.
Wholesale and manufacturing sales representatives who lack expertise about a given product frequently team with a technical expert. In this arrangement, the technical expert—sometimes a sales engineer—attends the sales presentation to explain the product and answer questions or concerns. The sales representative makes the initial contact with customers, introduces the company's product, and obtains final agreement from the potential buyer.
By working with a technical expert, the representative is able to spend more time maintaining and soliciting accounts and less time needing to gain technical knowledge.
After the sale, representatives may make follow-up visits to ensure that equipment is functioning properly and may even help train customers' employees to operate and maintain new equipment.
Those selling consumer goods often suggest how and where merchandise should be displayed. When working with retailers, they may help arrange promotional programs, store displays, and advertising.
In addition to selling products, wholesale and manufacturing sales representatives analyze sales statistics, prepare reports, and handle administrative duties such as filing expense accounts, scheduling appointments, and making travel plans.
Staying up-to-date on new products and the changing needs of customers is important. Sales representatives accomplish this in a variety of ways, including attending trade shows at which new products and technologies are showcased. They attend conferences and conventions to meet other sales representatives and clients and to discuss new product developments. They also read about new and existing products and monitor the sales, prices, and products of their competitors.
The following are examples of types of wholesale and manufacturing sales representatives:
Inside sales representatives work mostly in offices while making sales. Frequently, they are responsible for getting new clients by “cold calling” various organizations, which means they call potential customers who are not expecting to be contacted in order to establish an initial contact. They also take incoming calls from customers who are interested in their product, and process paperwork to complete the sale.
Outside sales representatives spend much of their time traveling to and visiting with current clients and prospective buyers. During a sales call, they discuss the client's needs and suggest how they can meet those needs with merchandise or services. They may show samples or catalogs that describe items their company provides, and they may inform customers about prices, availability, and ways in which their products can save money and boost productivity. Because many sales representatives sell several complementary products made by different manufacturers, they may take a broad approach to their customers' businesses. For example, sales representatives may help install new equipment and train employees in its use.
Educational requirements vary, depending on the type of product sold. If the products are not scientific or technical, a high school diploma is generally enough for entry into the occupation. If the products are scientific or technical, sales representatives typically need at least a bachelor's degree.Education
A high school diploma is sufficient for many positions, primarily for selling nontechnical or scientific products. However, those selling scientific and technical products typically must have a bachelor's degree. Scientific and technical products include pharmaceuticals, medical instruments, and industrial equipment. A degree in a field related to the product sold, such as chemistry, biology, or engineering, is often required.
Many sales representatives attend seminars in sales techniques or take courses in marketing, economics, communication, or even a foreign language to improve their ability to make sales.Training
Many companies have formal training programs for beginning wholesale and manufacturing sales representatives that last up to 1 year. In some programs, trainees rotate among jobs in plants and offices to learn all phases of producing, installing, and distributing the product. In others, trainees receive formal technical instruction at the plant, followed by on-the-job training under the supervision of a field sales manager.
New employees may be trained by going along with experienced workers on their sales calls. As they gain familiarity with the firm's products and clients, the new workers gain more responsibility until they eventually get their own territory.Licenses, Certifications, and Registrations
Many in this occupation have either the Certified Professional Manufacturers' Representative (CPMR) certification or the Certified Sales Professional (CSP) certification, both offered by the Manufacturers' Representatives Educational Research Foundation (MRERF). Certification typically involves completing formal technical training and passing an exam. In addition, the CPMR requires 10 hours of continuing education every year in order to maintain certification.Other Experience
Although not required, sales experience can be helpful, particularly for nontechnical positions.Advancement
Frequently, promotion takes the form of an assignment to a larger account or territory, where commissions are likely to be greater. Those who have good sales records and leadership ability may advance to higher level positions, such as sales supervisor, district manager, or vice president of sales. For more information on these positions, see the profile on sales managers.Important Qualities
Customer-service skills. Sales representatives must be able to listen to the customer’s needs and concerns before and after the sale.
Interpersonal skills. Sales representatives must be able to work well with many types of people. They must be able to build good relationships with clients and with other members of the sales team.
Self-confidence. Sales representatives must be confident and persuasive when making sales presentations. In addition, making a call to a potential customer who is not expecting to be contacted, or “cold calling,” requires confidence and composure.
Stamina. Sales representatives are often on their feet for long periods of time and may carry heavy sample products.
Average Length of Employment
Top Careers Before Sales Representative
Top Careers After Sales Representative
Hispanic or Latino13.6%
Black or African American0.6%
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University of Phoenix19.6%
Michigan State University5.9%
Florida State University5.2%
Texas State University4.5%
University of Central Florida4.5%
Arizona State University4.5%
University of Alabama4.4%
University of Houston4.4%
West Virginia University4.3%
Miami Dade College4.3%
Pennsylvania State University4.3%
University of South Florida3.9%
University of North Texas3.7%
Florida International University3.7%
Western Michigan University3.6%
Texas Tech University3.6%
Southern New Hampshire University3.6%
University of Arizona3.6%
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|Job Title||Company||Location||Start Date||Salary|
|Global Markets FX Sales Representative||State Street Bank and Trust Company||Boston, MA||Oct 24, 2016||$176,550 -
|Sales Representative (Senior Account Executive)||Salesforce.Com||San Francisco, CA||Mar 29, 2016||$150,000|
|Partner Sales Representative, Systems||Hewlett-Packard Enterprise Company||Miami, FL||May 20, 2016||$149,365|
|Sales Representative (Strategic Account Executive)||Salesforce.Com||San Francisco, CA||Mar 22, 2016||$135,000|
|Sales Representative III||Amazon Corporate LLC||Seattle, WA||Jan 18, 2016||$132,000|
|Sales Representative (Lead Solution Engineer, Service Cloud)||Salesforce.Com||San Francisco, CA||Mar 06, 2016||$122,179|
|Softlayer Sales Representative||IBM Corporation||Coppell, TX||Mar 02, 2015||$120,000|
|Sales Representative III||Elemental Technologies LLC||Weston, FL||Mar 14, 2016||$120,000|
|Sales Representative||Buckman Laboratories International, Inc.||Memphis, TN||Jan 21, 2016||$118,000|
|Sales Representative (Account Executive, General Business GEO)||Salesforce.Com||New York, NY||Jul 14, 2015||$116,688|
|Sales Representative (Account Executive, General Business GEO)||Salesforce.Com||New York, NY||Jan 19, 2016||$116,688|
|Sales Representative||CMC Steel Fabricators, Inc. DBA CMC Steel Arizona||Mesa, AZ||Aug 26, 2016||$112,986|
|Biopharmaceutical Sales Representative||Amgen Inc.||Thousand Oaks, CA||Jul 16, 2015||$112,894|
|Sales Representative||Skylight Consulting Inc.||Anaheim, CA||Jan 26, 2015||$73,045 -
|Sales Representative||Skylight Consulting Inc.||Anaheim, CA||Jan 22, 2015||$73,045 -
|Bio-Sciences Sales Representative||Life Technologies Corporation||Andover, MA||Jul 18, 2016||$72,738 -
|Sales Representative||Overbrook Scientific Inc.||Boston, MA||Dec 15, 2015||$72,000|
|Aviation Sales Representative||Southern Cross Aviation, LLC||Fort Lauderdale, FL||Nov 10, 2016||$71,000|
|Sales Representative||Kirby Smith MacHinery Inc.||Odessa, TX||Aug 01, 2015||$70,000 -
|Sales Representative||3P Learning Incorporated||Chicago, IL||Jan 12, 2015||$70,000|
|Sales Representative||IMEX Vision LLC||Irvine, CA||Jun 23, 2015||$47,736|
|Sales Representative||Hair Leader, LLC||Norcross, GA||Jun 27, 2016||$47,154|
|Sales Representative-Scientific Products||Hi-TEC Enterprises||Oxnard, CA||Sep 15, 2015||$46,675|
|Sales Representative-Scientific Products||Hi-TEC Enterprises||Oxnard, CA||Sep 20, 2015||$46,675|
|Sales Representative||Mitsumi Electronics Corporation||Novi, MI||Aug 09, 2016||$46,400 -
|Sales Representative-Import Wine Specialist||Southern Glazer's Wine and Spirits, LLC||Seattle, WA||Apr 09, 2016||$46,100 -
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A Day in the Life of a Sales Rep