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Psychologists study cognitive, emotional, and social processes and behavior by observing, interpreting, and recording how people relate to one another and their environments.Duties
Psychologists typically do the following:
Psychologists seek to understand and explain thoughts, emotions, feelings, and behavior. Psychologists use techniques such as observation, assessment, and experimentation to develop theories about the beliefs and feelings that influence a person.
Psychologists often gather information and evaluate behavior through controlled laboratory experiments, psychoanalysis, or psychotherapy. They also may administer personality, performance, aptitude, or intelligence tests. They look for patterns of behavior or relationships between events, and use this information when testing theories in their research or treating patients.
The following are examples of types of psychologists:
Clinical psychologists assess, diagnose, and treat mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders. Clinical psychologists help people deal with problems ranging from short-term personal issues to severe, chronic conditions.
Clinical psychologists are trained to use a variety of approaches to help individuals. Although strategies generally differ by specialty, clinical psychologists often interview patients, give diagnostic tests, and provide individual, family, or group psychotherapy. They also design behavior modification programs and help patients implement their particular program.
Some clinical psychologists focus on certain populations, such as children or the elderly, or certain specialties, such as the following:
Clinical psychologists often consult with other health professionals regarding the best treatment for patients, especially treatment that includes medication. Currently, Illinois, Louisiana, and New Mexico allow clinical psychologists to prescribe medication to patients. Most states, however, do not allow psychologists to prescribe medication for treatment.
Counseling psychologists help patients deal with and understand problems, including issues at home, at the workplace, or in their community. Through counseling, they work with patients to identify their strengths or resources they can use to manage problems. For information on other counseling occupations, see the profiles on mental health counselors and marriage and family therapists, substance abuse and behavioral disorder counselors, and social workers.
Developmental psychologists study the psychological progress and development that take place throughout life. Many developmental psychologists focus on children and adolescents, but they also may study aging and problems facing older adults.
Forensic psychologists use psychological principles in the legal and criminal justice system to help judges, attorneys, and other legal specialists understand the psychological aspects of a particular case. They often testify in court as expert witnesses. They typically specialize in family, civil, or criminal case work.
Industrial-organizational psychologists apply psychology to the workplace by using psychological principles and research methods to solve problems and improve the quality of work life. They study issues such as workplace productivity, management or employee working styles, and employee morale. They also work with management on matters such as policy planning, employee screening or training, and organizational development.
School psychologists apply psychological principles and techniques to education and developmental disorders. They may address student learning and behavioral problems; design and implement performance plans, and evaluate performances; and counsel students and families. They also may consult with other school-based professionals to suggest improvements to teaching, learning, and administrative strategies.
Social psychologists study how people’s mindsets and behavior are shaped by social interactions. They examine both individual and group interactions and may investigate ways to improve interactions.
Some psychologists become postsecondary teachers or high school teachers.
Although psychologists typically need a doctoral degree in psychology, a master’s degree is sufficient for some positions. Psychologists in independent practice also need a license.Education
Most clinical, counseling, and research psychologists need a doctoral degree. Students can complete a Ph.D. in psychology or a Doctor of Psychology (Psy.D.) degree. A Ph.D. in psychology is a research degree that is obtained after taking a comprehensive exam and writing a dissertation based on original research. Ph.D programs typically include courses on statistics and experimental procedures. The Psy.D. is a clinical degree and is often based on practical work and examinations rather than a dissertation. In clinical, counseling, school, or health service settings, students usually complete a 1-year internship as part of the doctoral program.
School psychologists need an advanced degree and certification or licensure to work. The advanced degree is most commonly the education specialist degree (Ed.S.), which typically requires a minimum of 60 graduate semester credit hours and a 1,200-hour supervised internship. Some school psychologists may have a doctoral degree in school psychology or a master’s degree. School psychologists’ programs include coursework in both education and psychology because their work addresses education and mental health components of students’ development.
Graduates with a master’s degree in psychology can work as industrial-organizational psychologists. When working under the supervision of a doctoral psychologist, master’s graduates can also work as psychological assistants in clinical, counseling, or research settings. Master’s degree programs typically include courses in industrial-organizational psychology, statistics, and research design.
Most master’s degree programs do not require an undergraduate major in psychology, but do require coursework in introductory psychology, experimental psychology, and statistics. Some doctoral degree programs require applicants to have a master’s degree in psychology; others will accept applicants with a bachelor’s degree and a major in psychology.
Most graduates with a bachelor’s degree in psychology find work in other fields such as business administration, sales, or education.Licenses, Certifications, and Registrations
In most states, practicing psychology or using the title of “psychologist” requires licensure. In all states and the District of Columbia, psychologists who practice independently must be licensed where they work.
Licensing laws vary by state and type of position. Most clinical and counseling psychologists need a doctorate in psychology, an internship, at least 1 to 2 years of supervised professional experience, and to pass the Examination for Professional Practice in Psychology. Information on specific state requirements can be obtained from the Association of State and Provincial Psychology Boards. In many states, licensed psychologists must complete continuing education courses to keep their licenses.
The American Board of Professional Psychology awards specialty certification in 15 areas of psychology, such as clinical health, couple and family, or rehabilitation. The American Board of Professional Neuropsychology offers certification in neuropsychology. Board certification can demonstrate professional expertise in a specialty area. Certification is not required for most psychologists, but some hospitals and clinics do require certification. In those cases, candidates must have a doctoral degree in psychology, state license or certification, and any additional criteria of the specialty field.Training
Prospective practicing psychologists must have pre- or post-doctoral supervised experience, including an internship. Internships allow students to gain experience in an applied setting. Candidates must complete an internship before they can qualify for state licensure. The required number of hours of the internship varies by state.Important Qualities
Analytical skills. Psychologists must be able to examine the information they collect and draw logical conclusions from them.
Communication skills. Psychologists must have strong communication skills because they spend much of their time listening to and speaking with patients.
Observational skills. Psychologists study attitude and behavior. They must be able to watch people and understand the possible meanings of facial expressions, body positions, actions, and interactions.
Patience. Psychologists must be able to demonstrate patience, because conducting research or treating patients may take a long time.
People skills. Psychologists study and help people. They must be able to work well with clients, patients, and other professionals.
Problem-solving skills. Psychologists need problem-solving skills to design research, evaluate programs, and find treatments or solutions for mental and behavioral problems.
Trustworthiness. Psychologists must keep patients’ problems in confidence, and patients must be able to trust psychologists’ expertise in treating sensitive problems.
Average Length of Employment
Top Careers Before School Psychologist
Top Careers After School Psychologist
Hispanic or Latino10.9%
Black or African American0.6%
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Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine5.9%
Southern Connecticut State University5.0%
College of Saint Rose5.0%
California University of Pennsylvania4.6%
Georgia State University4.6%
University of Northern Colorado4.1%
Saint John's University - New York4.1%
Nova Southeastern University4.1%
University of Florida4.1%
Pace University - New York3.7%
Fairleigh Dickinson University3.7%
Unfortunately we don’t have enough data for this section.
|Job Title||Company||Location||Start Date||Salary|
|School Psychologist||Functional Life Achievement, Inc.||New York, NY||Nov 01, 2013||$100,176|
|Clinical, Counseling, and School Psychologists||St. Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital Center||New York, NY||Sep 09, 2013||$88,421|
|Clinical, Counseling, and School Psychologists||Che Senior Psychological Services, PC||New York, NY||Feb 19, 2014||$80,000|
|Clinical, Counseling, and School Psychologists||Industrial Medicine Associates, P.C.||Rochester, NY||Aug 05, 2014||$80,000|
|Clinical, Counseling, and School Psychologists||Che Senior Psychological Services, PC||New York, NY||May 30, 2014||$80,000|
|School Psychologist||Federal Way Public Schools||Federal Way, WA||Jan 09, 2016||$78,972|
|School Psychologist||Town of Greenwich||Greenwich, CT||May 01, 2015||$78,749|
|School Psychologist||Top Echelon Contracting, Inc.||Yakima, WA||Aug 01, 2013||$78,576|
|Clinical, Counseling, and School Psychologists||Massachusetts General Hospital||Boston, MA||Mar 18, 2014||$78,500|
|School Psychologist||SHC Services, Inc.||Federal Way, WA||Sep 06, 2014||$78,263|
|School Psychologist||Hospital Clinic Home Center, Inc.||New York, NY||Oct 01, 2013||$77,177|
|Clinical, Counseling, and School Psychologists||The Child & Family Counseling Group, PLC||Fairfax, VA||Feb 28, 2014||$77,000|
|School Psychologist||Princeton International School of Mathematics and||Princeton, NJ||Sep 12, 2013||$70,000|
|Clinical, Counseling, and School Psychologists||Portia Bell Hume Behavioral Health & Training Ctr||Concord, CA||May 07, 2014||$69,500|
|School Psychologist||Town of Greenwich||Greenwich, CT||Nov 19, 2015||$69,365|
|Clinical, Counseling, and School Psychologists||Through The Looking Glass||Berkeley, CA||Oct 29, 2013||$69,285|
|Clinical, Counseling, and School Psychologists||Through The Looking Glass||Berkeley, CA||May 07, 2014||$69,285|
|Clinical, Counseling, and School Psychologists||Hospital Clinic Home Center, Inc.||New York, NY||Jan 24, 2013||$69,118|
|Clinical, Counseling, and School Psychologists||University of Maryland||College Park, MD||Sep 19, 2014||$68,769|
|Clinical, Counseling, and School Psychologists||Brigham Young University||Provo, UT||Sep 08, 2014||$59,077|
|Clinical, Counseling, and School Psychologists||Familias First DBA Tello and Associates||San Gabriel, CA||Feb 07, 2014||$58,240|
|Clinical, Counseling, and School Psychologists||Boston College||MA||Mar 11, 2014||$58,000|
|School Psychologist||EBS Healthcare, Inc.||Spanaway, WA||Dec 18, 2013||$57,393|
|School Psychologist||EBS Healthcare, Inc.||Spanaway, WA||Aug 01, 2013||$57,393|
|School Psychologist||EBS Healthcare, Inc.||Spanaway, WA||Dec 18, 2016||$57,393|
|School Psychologist||Park Hill School District||Kansas City, MO||Sep 01, 2013||$57,097|
|Clinical, Counseling, and School Psychologists||Lyle R Cadenhead||Houston, TX||Oct 28, 2013||$55,245|
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The ABC's of School Psychology
School Psychology (PsyD) degree, Faculty Advice Video from drkit.org