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Although education and training requirements vary widely by position and industry, many top executives have at least a bachelor’s degree and a considerable amount of work experience.Education
Many top executives have a bachelor’s or master’s degree in business administration or in an area related to their field of work. Top executives in the public sector often have a degree in business administration, public administration, law, or the liberal arts. Top executives of large corporations often have a master’s degree in business administration (MBA).
College presidents and school superintendents are typically required to have a master’s degree, although a doctorate is often preferred.
Although many mayors, governors, or other public sector executives have at least a bachelor’s degree, these positions typically do not have any specific education requirements.Work Experience in a Related Occupation
Many top executives advance within their own firm, moving up from lower level managerial or supervisory positions. However, other companies may prefer to hire qualified candidates from outside their organization. Top executives who are promoted from lower level positions may be able to substitute experience for education to move up in the company. For example, in industries such as retail trade or transportation, workers without a college degree may work their way up to higher levels within the company to become executives or general managers.
Chief executives typically need extensive managerial experience. Executives are also expected to have experience in the organization’s area of specialty. Most general and operations managers hired from outside an organization need lower level supervisory or management experience in a related field.
Some general managers advance to higher level managerial or executive positions. Company training programs, executive development programs, and certification can often benefit managers or executives hoping to advance.Important Qualities
Communication skills. Top executives must be able to communicate clearly and persuasively. They must effectively discuss issues and negotiate with others, direct subordinates, and explain their policies and decisions to those within and outside the organization.
Decisionmaking skills. Top executives need decisionmaking skills when setting policies and managing an organization. They must assess different options and choose the best course of action, often daily.
Leadership skills. Top executives must be able to lead an organization successfully by coordinating policies, people, and resources.
Management skills. Top executives must shape and direct the operations of an organization. For example, they must manage business plans, employees, and budgets.
Problem-solving skills. Top executives need to identify and resolve issues within an organization. They must be able to recognize shortcomings and effectively carry out solutions.
Time-management skills. Top executives do many tasks at the same time, typically under their own direction, to ensure that their work gets done and that they meet their goals.
Average Length of Employment
Top Careers Before Scientific Director
Top Careers After Scientific Director
Hispanic or Latino7.7%
Black or African American0.4%
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Johns Hopkins University8.5%
George Washington University8.5%
University of South Florida6.8%
University of California - San Diego6.8%
University of Connecticut5.1%
University of Michigan - Ann Arbor5.1%
Pennsylvania State University5.1%
University of California - San Francisco5.1%
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill5.1%
George Mason University5.1%
University of Florida3.4%
University of the Sciences3.4%
University of Pennsylvania3.4%
University of California - Los Angeles3.4%
Ohio State University3.4%
University of Missouri - Columbia3.4%
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|Job Title||Company||Location||Start Date||Salary|
|Scientific Director||Amgen Inc.||Thousand Oaks, CA||Oct 01, 2012||$230,000|
|Scientific Director, Reconstructive Transplantatio||Johns Hopkins University||Baltimore, MD||Feb 15, 2014||$218,700|
|Scientific Director||TCA Cellular Therapy, LLC||Covington, LA||Dec 01, 2010||$200,000|
|Scientific Director||Max Planck Florida Corporation||Jupiter, FL||Mar 27, 2012||$185,618|
|Scientific Director, CTA Program||Johns Hopkins University||Baltimore, MD||Feb 15, 2011||$185,000|
|Scientific Director||Jones Microbiology Institute, Inc.||North Liberty, IA||Aug 01, 2011||$185,000|
|Scientific Affairs Director||Parnell Corporate Services Us Inc.||Kansas City, MO||Apr 24, 2012||$179,583|
|Scientific Director||Letters & Sciences||NJ||Oct 01, 2012||$174,000|
|Scientific Director||Amgen Inc.||CO||Mar 01, 2015||$172,720|
|Scientific Director||Amgen Inc.||Thousand Oaks, CA||May 07, 2012||$170,000|
|Scientific Affairs Director||Parnell Corporate Services Us Inc.||Overland Park, KS||Apr 24, 2014||$170,000|
|Scientific Director||Amgen Inc.||Thousand Oaks, CA||Apr 02, 2016||$170,000|
|SR. Scientific Director||Letters & Sciences, LLC||NJ||Jul 12, 2016||$162,344 -
|Director, Scientific Affairs||Novum Pharmaceutical Research Services of Delaware||Pittsburgh, PA||Jan 02, 2016||$159,120|
|Director of Scientific Affairs (Scientific Writing||Novum Pharmaceutical Research Services of Delaware||Pittsburgh, PA||Aug 18, 2014||$156,000|
|Scientific Director||Amgen Inc.||Thousand Oaks, CA||Dec 16, 2009||$155,027|
|Scientific Director||Max Planck Florida Corporation||Jupiter, FL||Jul 27, 2009||$154,000|
|Director, Scientific Affairs||Novum Pharmaceutical Research Services of Delaware||Pittsburgh, PA||Oct 01, 2014||$150,000|
|Director Scientific Affairs||Novum Pharmaceutical Research Services of Delaware||Pittsburgh, PA||Oct 03, 2011||$150,000|
|Scientific Affairs Director||Medicus Group International, Inc.||New York, NY||Oct 01, 2010||$150,000|
|Associate Scientific Director||Health Interactions, Inc.||San Francisco, CA||Sep 27, 2010||$125,000|
|Associate Scientific Director||Meditech Media, Ltd.||San Francisco, CA||Sep 06, 2010||$125,000|
|Associate Scientific Director||Health Interactions, Inc.||San Francisco, CA||Oct 20, 2010||$125,000|
|Director of Scientific Discovery||Wm. Wrigley Jr. Company||Chicago, IL||Oct 01, 2009||$123,906 -
|SR. Scientific Director, Business Innovation||Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Florida, Inc.||Jacksonville, FL||Jan 07, 2014||$117,000|
|SR. Scientific Director, Business Innovation||Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Florida, Inc.||Jacksonville, FL||Jul 01, 2014||$117,000|
|Senior Scientific Director||Letters & Sciences||NJ||Oct 01, 2012||$111,405 -
|Scientific Director||Reprogenetics LLC||Livingston, NJ||Sep 15, 2015||$110,000|
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