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Medical scientists typically have a Ph.D., usually in biology or a related life science. Some medical scientists get a medical degree instead of a Ph.D., but prefer doing research to practicing as a physician.Education
Students planning careers as medical scientists typically pursue a bachelor’s degree in biology, chemistry, or a related field. Undergraduate students benefit from taking a broad range of classes, including life sciences, physical sciences, and math. Students also typically take courses that develop communication and writing skills, because they must learn to write grants effectively and publish research findings.
After students have completed their undergraduate studies, they typically enter Ph.D. programs. Dual-degree programs are available that pair a Ph.D. with a range of specialized medical degrees. A few degree programs that are commonly paired with Ph.D. studies are Medical Doctor (M.D.), Doctor of Dental Surgery (D.D.S.), Doctor of Dental Medicine (D.M.D.), and Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine (D.O.). Whereas Ph.D. studies focus on research methods, such as project design and data interpretation, students in dual-degree programs learn both the clinical skills needed to be a physician and the research skills needed to be a scientist.
Graduate programs emphasize both laboratory work and original research. These programs offer prospective medical scientists the opportunity to develop their experiments and, sometimes, to supervise undergraduates. Ph.D. programs culminate in a thesis that the candidate presents before a committee of professors. Students may specialize in a particular field, such as gerontology, neurology, or cancer.
Those who go to medical school spend most of the first 2 years in labs and classrooms, taking courses such as anatomy, biochemistry, physiology, pharmacology, psychology, microbiology, pathology, medical ethics, and medical law. They also learn how to record medical histories, examine patients, and diagnose illnesses. They may be required to participate in residency programs, meeting the same requirements that physicians and surgeons have to fulfill.
Medical scientists often continue their education with postdoctoral work. Postdoctoral work provides additional and more independent lab experience, including experience in specific processes and techniques such as gene splicing, which is transferable to other research projects.Licenses, Certifications, and Registrations
Medical scientists primarily conduct research and typically do not need licenses or certifications. However, those who administer drugs, gene therapy, or otherwise practice medicine on patients in clinical trials or a private practice need a license to practice as a physician.Important Qualities
Communication skills. Communication is critical, because medical scientists must be able to explain their conclusions. In addition, medical scientists write grant proposals, because grants often are required to fund their research.
Critical-thinking skills. Medical scientists must use their expertise to determine the best method for solving a specific research question.
Data-analysis skills. Medical scientists use statistical techniques, so that they can properly quantify and analyze health research questions.
Decisionmaking skills. Medical scientists must determine what research questions to ask, how best to investigate the questions, and what data will best answer the questions.
Observation skills. Medical scientists conduct experiments that require precise observation of samples and other health data. Any mistake could lead to inconclusive or misleading results.
Average Length of Employment
Top Careers Before Toxicologist
Top Careers After Toxicologist
Hispanic or Latino6.5%
Black or African American0.8%
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University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill10.5%
University of Florida7.0%
University of Washington7.0%
Oregon State University5.3%
University of Alabama at Birmingham5.3%
University of Minnesota - Twin Cities5.3%
Colorado Technical University5.3%
University of Iowa5.3%
Michigan State University5.3%
University of California - Davis5.3%
North Carolina State University3.5%
Saint John's University - New York3.5%
Wright State University3.5%
University of Michigan - Ann Arbor3.5%
Texas Tech University3.5%
Loyola University of Chicago3.5%
New York University3.5%
Ohio State University3.5%
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|Job Title||Company||Location||Start Date||Salary|
|PHD Human Safety Toxicologist||The Procter & Gamble Company||Cincinnati, OH||Jan 20, 2012||$101,000|
|Toxicologist||AIT Laboratories||Indianapolis, IN||May 01, 2011||$100,000|
|Toxicologist||AIT Laboratories||Indianapolis, IN||May 01, 2013||$100,000|
|Project Toxicologist||Arcadis U.S., Inc.||Cincinnati, OH||Oct 01, 2011||$90,002|
|Advanced Toxicologist||Exxonmobil Biomedical Sciences, Inc.||Annandale, NJ||Sep 04, 2012||$89,900 -
|Toxicologist||Labtest International, Inc.||Oak Brook, IL||Feb 01, 2011||$85,000|
|Toxicologist||Toxservices LLC||Washington, DC||Aug 24, 2016||$83,301|
|Toxicologist||Labtest International, Inc.||Oak Brook, IL||Sep 05, 2012||$82,846|
|Toxicologist||Labtest International, Inc.||Oak Brook, IL||May 01, 2012||$82,846|
|Regulatory Toxicologist||Georgia-Pacific LLC||Neenah, WI||Dec 23, 2013||$82,000 -
|Regulatory Toxicologist||Georgia Pacific Consumer Products, LP||Neenah, WI||Aug 19, 2013||$82,000 -
|Toxicologist||Toxservices LLC||Washington, DC||Aug 25, 2016||$80,000|
|Toxicologist||Center for Toxicology and Environmental Health||North Little Rock, AR||Aug 25, 2015||$74,074|
|Marine Toxicologist (Reearch Assistant Professor)||University of South Alabama||Dauphin Island, AL||Aug 01, 2013||$72,000|
|Toxicologist||Toxservices LLC||Ann Arbor, MI||Sep 15, 2015||$70,000|
|Toxicologist||Center for Toxicology and Environmental Health, Ll||North Little Rock, AR||Mar 08, 2016||$69,118|
|Toxicologist||Toxservices LLC||Washington, DC||Aug 26, 2013||$68,000|
|Toxicologist||TAC Diagnostics, LLC||Bradenton, FL||Jan 09, 2016||$65,500|
|Toxicologist||Toxicology Excellence for Risk Assessment||Cincinnati, OH||Nov 01, 2013||$65,281 -
|Toxicologist/Chemist||Castle Medical, LLC||Smyrna, GA||Aug 25, 2016||$60,000|
|Toxicologist II||The Dow Chemical Company||Midland, MI||Oct 25, 2010||$60,000 -
|Toxicologist||Huntingdon Life Sciences, Inc.||East Millstone, NJ||Oct 01, 2014||$59,363 -
|Toxicologist||Toxservices LLC||Washington, DC||Jun 14, 2016||$59,000 -
|Toxicologist||Toxservices LLC||Washington, DC||Aug 24, 2016||$59,000 -
|Toxicologist||International Flavors and Fragrances, Inc.||Union Beach, NJ||Mar 15, 2010||$58,600 -
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