U.S. Department of the Interior Company History Timeline

1849

It wasn't until March 3, 1849, the last day of the 30th Congress, that a bill was passed to create the Department of the Interior to take charge of the Nation's internal affairs:

Soon after the Department of the Interior was established in 1849, Thomas Ewing, a former Senator from Ohio and father-in-law of General William T. Sherman, was selected to be the first Secretary of the Interior.

These rules were then enforced by miner courts."9 1849: Congress creates the Department of the Interior.

1849: Congress creates the Department of the Interior.

1850

1850: The first federal railroad land grant is for a line from Chicago, Illinois to Mobile, Alabama.10 1850: The Swamp Act leads to the transfer of 50 million acres of federal land to state governments over time.

1850: The first federal railroad land grant is for a line from Chicago, Illinois to Mobile, Alabama.10

1850: The Swamp Act leads to the transfer of 50 million acres of federal land to state governments over time.

1860

The Republican Party adopts homesteading in its 1860 election platform, and passage is made possible by the secession of Southern states from the union.

1862

1862: The Morrill Act provides grants of federal land to the states.

However, this law and other pre-1862 efforts to raise revenues from federal land sales are not very successful.

1869

1869 Interior began its geological survey of the western Territories with the Hayden expedition.

1872

1872 Congress establishes Yellowstone as the first National Park.

1872: Congress creates the first national park, Yellowstone, which is administered by Interior.

1873

14 Edward Winslow Martin, "A Complete and Graphic Account of the Crédit Mobilier Investigation," Continental Publishing Company and National Publishing Company, 1873, http://cprr.org/Museum/Credit_Mobilier_1873.html.

1875

1875: Interior Secretary, Columbus Delano, resigns from office in the face of various corruption scandals.

1879

1879: The United States Geological Survey is created within Interior to research and map the nation's lands, thus consolidating activities that had taken place within both Interior and the War Department.

1887

The Indian Reorganization Act abolishes the allotment system established in 1887, forms tribal governments, and affirms the Secretary's trust responsibilities.

1902

1902 The Bureau of Reclamation is established to construct dams and aqueducts in the west.

However, efficiently managing vast areas of land from Washington turns out to be much more difficult than the Progressives envision.20 1902: The Reclamation Act passes with the support of President Theodore Roosevelt and after years of lobbying by special interest groups such as the railroads.

1902: The Reclamation Act passes with the support of President Theodore Roosevelt and after years of lobbying by special interest groups such as the railroads.

1903

1903 President Theodore Roosevelt establishes the first National Wildlife Refuge at Pelican Island, Florida.

1910

1910 The Bureau of Mines is created to promote mine safety and minerals technology.

1920

1920 The Mineral Leasing Act establishes the government's right to rental payments and royalties on oil, gas, and minerals production.

1920: Congress passes the Mineral Leasing Act, which forms the basis of modern rules for extracting oil, gas, and coal resources on federal lands.

1922

1922: News of the Teapot Dome bribery scandal breaks.

1925

1925 The Patent Office is transferred to the Department of Commerce.

1930

1930: The blue ribbon Garfield Commission supports President Herbert Hoover's call to transfer ownership of millions of acres of western lands to the states.

1935

1935 The Bureau of Reclamation completes construction of Hoover Dam.

1937

In April 1937 Ickes issued Secretarial Order No.

Ickes made sure that plans for the new building, completed in 1937, included dedicated space for a new Interior Library.

1939

The Office of Education was part of the Department of the Interior until 1939, when it became part of the Federal Security Agency.

1940

1940 The United States Fish and Wildlife Service is created from the Bureau of Fisheries and the Bureau of Biological Survey.

22 For background, see James F. Kieley, A Brief History of the National Park Service (Washington: Department of the Interior, 1940), www.nps.gov/history/history/online_books/kieley/kieley1.htm.

1940: The United States Fish and Wildlife Service is created from the Bureau of Fisheries and the Bureau of Biological Survey.

1946

1946 Interior's General Land Office and Grazing Service are merged into the Bureau of Land Management.

1948

Although it was no longer part of the Interior Department, the Office of Education maintained the library in the Interior Building until December 1948.

Finally, in December 1948, the Library of the Office of Education was moved out of the Interior Building.

1949

The newly reestablished Department of the Interior Library was able to collect over 450 thousand volumes in 1949 from all of the bureaus and agencies listed above, and established itself as the Interior Department's primary resource for information in subject matters related to the Department.

1968

1968: Congress authorizes the massive Central Arizona Project to channel water with huge pumps and aqueducts from the Colorado River to Phoenix, Tucson, and surrounding areas.

1971

1971: President Richard Nixon signs the Alaska Natives Claims Settlement Act, giving 44 million acres and $962 million to local native groups and 13 larger native corporations in Alaska.33

1976

The dam suffered from shoddy engineering, and it was built based on a flawed economic analysis.37 1976: The Federal Land Policy and Management Act promotes the retention of federal lands and creates new regulations for lands overseen by the Bureau of Land Management.

1976: The Bureau of Reclamation's Teton Dam in Idaho collapses a year after it was built.

1976: The Federal Land Policy and Management Act promotes the retention of federal lands and creates new regulations for lands overseen by the Bureau of Land Management.

1977

1977 The Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act is established to oversee state regulation of strip coal mining and repair of environmental damage.

However, Carter misplays the politics of the issue, and his proposed spending cuts go nowhere in Congress.38 1977: Congress creates the Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement to oversee state regulation of surface coal mines.

1977: President Jimmy Carter tries to end funding for a "hit list" of 19 water projects being pursued by the Bureau of Reclamation and the Army Corps of Engineers.

1977: Congress creates the Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement to oversee state regulation of surface coal mines.

1979

1979: The Nevada legislature passes the Sagebrush Rebellion Act aimed at transferring federal lands in the state to the state government.

1979: Senator Orrin Hatch of Utah and other members of Congress introduce legislation to transfer some federal lands to state control.

The Office of Education was part of the Department of the Interior until 1939, when it became part of the Federal Security Agency. It would later join the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare before becoming its own cabinet agency, the Department of Education, in 1979.

1980

1980 The Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act is enacted adding 47 million acres to the National Park System and 54 acres to the National Wildlife Refuge System.

1980: President Jimmy Carter signs the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act, which adds more than 47 million acres to the National Park System and nearly 54 million acres to the National Wildlife Refuge System.40

1982

1982 The Minerals Management Service (now known as the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation, and Enforcement) is established to facilitate mineral revenue collection and manage the Outer Continental Shelf offshore lands.

1982: The Reagan administration proposes to privatize unneeded federal lands.

1982: The Minerals Management Service is established to handle federal revenue collection stemming from onshore and offshore energy and mineral extraction.

1988

2 James Muhn and Hanson R. Stuart, Opportunity and Challenge: The Story of BLM (Washington: Department of the Interior, September 1988), Chapter 1, www.nps.gov/history/history/online_books/blm/history.

13 James Muhn and Hanson R. Stuart, Opportunity and Challenge: The Story of BLM (Washington: Department of the Interior, September 1988), Chapter 1, www.nps.gov/history/history/online_books/blm/history.

1989

8 Richard W. Wahl, Markets for Federal Water: Subsidies, Property Rights and the Bureau of Reclamation (Washington: Resources for the Future, 1989), Table 1.2.

15 Robert M. Utley and Barry Mackintosh, "Department of Everything Else: Highlights of Interior History," Department of the Interior, 1989, www.nps.gov/history/history/online_books/utley-mackintosh.

16 Robert M. Utley and Barry Mackintosh, "Department of Everything Else: Highlights of Interior History," Department of the Interior, 1989, www.nps.gov/history/history/online_books/utley-mackintosh.

17 Robert M. Utley and Barry Mackintosh, "Department of Everything Else: Highlights of Interior History," Department of the Interior, 1989, www.nps.gov/history/history/online_books/utley-mackintosh.

27 Robert M. Utley and Barry Mackintosh, "Department of Everything Else: Highlights of Interior History," Department of the Interior, 1989, www.nps.gov/history/history/online_books/utley-mackintosh.

1992

1 (Winter 1992). And see Jonathan H. Adler, "Anti-Conservation Incentives," Regulation 30, no.

1993

1993 The President convened the Northwest Forest Plan Summit and released the "Forest Plan for a Sustainable Economy and Sustainable Environment."

1994

1994: Interior Secretary Bruce Babbitt proposes to increase Bureau of Land Management grazing fees for ranchers, which are set far below market levels.

1995

20 For a discussion of shortcomings in federal land management, see Robert H. Nelson, Public Lands and Private Rights (Lanham, Maryland: Rowman and Littlefield, 1995).

1999

Our origins span about 30 years culminating in the 1999 merger of Bureau of Reclamation's Denver Administrative Service Center, United States Geological Survey's Washington Administrative Service Center and the Office of the Secretary's Interior Service Center.

2001

In 2001, the President's Management Agenda (PMA) established cross-servicing as an important and lasting movement in the management of federal agencies.

2001 Gale A. Norton is nominated the first woman to serve as Secretary of the Interior.

2005

In response to the PMA's initiatives, in 2005, the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) began the establishment of Lines of Business and Centers of Excellence to replace costly redundant individual service provisions within multiple federal agencies.

2006

Available online at: 〈http://www.cr.nps.gov/history/online_books/utley-mackintosh/interiora.htm〉 (accessed March 17, 2006).

2008

And see Department of the Interior, Office of Inspector General, "Investigative Report of Gregory W. Smith," August 7, 2008.

2009

2009: President Barack Obama approves a $3.4 billion class action settlement for more than 300,000 Indian trust fund claims after a long-running dispute.50 Cobell v.

2010

2010 Secretary Ken Salazar signs order 3302, renaming the Minerals Management Service as the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation, and Enforcement.

After major scandals, the agency is split up in 2010 into the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation, and Enforcement and the Office of Natural Resources Revenue.

2011

2011 The Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation, and Enforcement is replaced by the new Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement and Office of Natural Resources Revenue.

2011: The Department of the Interior manages more than 500 million acres of land, which is about one-fifth the land area of the United States.55 The department has about 70,000 employees and 2,400 offices across the nation.

2011: The Government Accountability Office reports that Interior has between $13.5 billion and $19.9 billion of deferred maintenance costs.54 There are frequent complaints that the national parks and other Interior lands and facilities suffer from deterioration and neglect.

1872: Congress creates the first national park, Yellowstone, which is administered by Interior. It has gross budget outlays of $20.5 billion and net outlays after offsetting receipts of about $13 billion in fiscal 2011.56

2011: The Department of the Interior manages more than 500 million acres of land, which is about one-fifth the land area of the United States.55 The department has about 70,000 employees and 2,400 offices across the nation. It has gross budget outlays of $20.5 billion and net outlays after offsetting receipts of about $13 billion in fiscal 2011.56

2021

"Department of the Interior Established ." Environmental Issues: Essential Primary Sources. . Encyclopedia.com. (April 15, 2021). https://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/energy-government-and-defense-magazines/department-interior-established

"Department of the Interior Established ." Environmental Issues: Essential Primary Sources. . Retrieved April 15, 2021 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/energy-government-and-defense-magazines/department-interior-established

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